Crossbows in the Archipelago?

Fig. 1 — A detail from the Hungarian crossbowman card in the Ambraser Hofämterspiel, a card game preserved in a complete pack dated to c.1455 now in the Kunsthistorisches Museum in Vienna (Kunstkammer, inv. no. 5077-KK 5124). You can purchase a facsimile of the pack, which I did in Vienna a couple of years ago.
Fig. 2 — Crossbows depicted in a fifteenth-century Old East Slavic manuscript. St Petersburg, Library of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Radziwiłł Chronicle, f.195r.
Fig. 3 — A depiction of a crossbow being shot from the back of a horse on an Ayyubid-era enamelled glass water flask (1250–1260 CE). London, British Museum, inv. no. 1869,0120.3.
Fig. 4 — Crossbows in a depiction of the 1402 siege of Smyrna in the the Garrett Zafarnama (Baltimore, John Work Garrett Library, MS 3, f.449v-450r), a biography of Timur (‘Tamerlane’) written and painted in 1467, probably in Herat.
Fig. 5 — A crossbow depicted in part of the Admonitions Scroll (女史箴圖), a painting dating to some point in the first millennium CE. It’s probably a fifth-to-eighth-century copy of a presumed fourth-century original traditionally attributed to Gù Kǎizhī (顧愷之). London, British Museum, inv. no. 1903,0408,0.1.
Fig. 6 — A battle scene at the Bayon, Angkor Thom, Cambodia. Paris, École française d’Extrême-Orient, CAM06244.
Fig. 7— A depiction of crossbowmen with a ‘double crossbow’ in a late-twelfth-century bas-relief on the first floor of the western part of the south gallery at the Bayon, Angkor Thom, Cambodia. Paris, École française d’Extrême-Orient, CAM06496.
Fig. 8— The 1522 letter from Sultan Abu Hayat to the King of Portugal. Lisbon, Arquivo Nacional da Torre do Tombo, ANTT Gavetas 15–15–733.
Fig. 9 — The location of Ternate and Tidore, two rival sultanates in eastern Indonesia. The two islands are rather small, but they were the main centres of power in Maluku and western New Guinea from the late fifteenth century into the seventeenth.
Fig. 10 — A detail from ANTT Gavetas 15–15–733, lines 8–10.
Fig. 11— A detail from Álvaro Fernandes’s Portuguese translation of the Sultan’s letter. The word “bestas” is highlighted.

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Posting about ancient and medieval Indonesia, up to ~1500 CE. Mainly into 14th & 15th century stuff, but earlier is fine too.

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Medieval Indonesia

Medieval Indonesia

Posting about ancient and medieval Indonesia, up to ~1500 CE. Mainly into 14th & 15th century stuff, but earlier is fine too.

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