Tioman Island in the Middle Ages

Just off the east coast of the Malay Peninsula in the South China Sea, at about two degrees north and 104 degrees east, there is a small island called Tioman. Administratively it’s in the Malaysian state of Pahang, and it’s supposed to be a lovely place (Figure 1). The main industry now is tourism: Tioman is full of diving resorts and, though it is only about 136 square kilometres in area, the island even has its own airport.

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Fig. 1 — The southwestern end of Tioman. Sourced from Google Maps.
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Fig. 2 — Kedah and Tioman on Google Maps.
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Fig. 3 — Tioman (highlighted) on the map of the Indian Ocean in Oxford, Bodleian Library, MS Arab c. 90, f.29b-30a, drawn c.1200. The peculiar pinecone-shaped thing is supposed to be a volcano, also mentioned by Abū Zayd al-Sīrāfī.
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Fig. 4 — Detail from Oxford, Bodleian Library, MS Arab c. 90, f.29b-30a, showing Tioman Island.
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Fig.5 — Tioman Island (highlighted) on the Cantino Planisphere (Modena, Biblioteca Estense, C. G. A. 2). 1502 CE.
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Fig. 6 — Tioman on the so-called Mao Kun map in Juan 240 of Máo Yuányí’s Wǔbèi Zhì (武備志). Image taken from the Library of Congress’ digitised copy (E701.M32.1).

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Posting about ancient and medieval Indonesia, up to ~1500 CE. Mainly into 14th & 15th century stuff, but earlier is fine too.

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